||Sains dan Matematika
In the Leibniz–Newton calculus, one learns the differentiation and integration
of deterministic functions. A basic theorem in differentiation is the chain rule,
which gives the derivative of a composite of two differentiable functions. The
chain rule, when written in an indefinite integral form, yields the method of
substitution. In advanced calculus, the Riemann–Stieltjes integral is defined
through the same procedure of “partition-evaluation-summation-limit” as in
the Riemann integral.